Consonant Chart

Brunei Malay can be considered as having the 18 consonants shown in the Consonant Chart. This is the inventory given in Jaludin (2003: 44), though Mataim (2007: 28) excludes /w/ and /j/ on the grounds that they are ‘margin high vowels’, and Clynes (2001) includes /w/ but excludes /j/.

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p    b t    d     k    ɡ    
Affricate         tʃ    dʒ        
Fricative     s            h   
Nasal     m     n     ɲ     ŋ    
Trill/Tap         r            
Approximant     w         j        
Lateral Approximant         l            

The places of articulation shown in the Consonant table are the same as those in Jaludin (2000: 154) and Mataim (2007: 27), though Clynes (2001) prefers to group /s/ together with /tʃ dʒ ɲ/ and label them as ‘laminals’ (on the basis of the active rather than the passive articulator).

In addition to these 18 consonants, Jaludin (2000: 154) lists the glottal stop /ʔ/ as a consonant of Brunei Malay, though Jaludin (2003: 44) omits it. Poedjosoedarmo (1996: 40) notes that a glottal stop tends to be appended to word-final vowels in utterance-final position to indicate stress, in which case it is non-contrastive. It is therefore not listed as a phoneme here.