Consonant Chart

There are 17 consonant phonemes in Kedayan as shown in Table 2. This is the same as the classification offered by Soderberg (2014), except that he shows /t/ as dental (and thus uses the symbol /t̪/) while /d/ is shown as alveolar. While this may be phonetically accurate, there is no evidence that the pronunciation of /t/ is any different in Kedayan from Standard Malay and Brunei Malay, for which which it is often classified with the same place of articulation as /d/ (Clynes & Deterding, 2011; Deterding & Ishamina, 2017).

Further research is needed to determine how many Kedayan speakers use dental articulation of /t/, the extent to which there is a consistent distinction in the place of articulation of /t/ and /d/, and how much difference there is in the production of /t/ between Kedayan, Standard Malay and Brunei Malay.

Bilabial Dental/
Palato-Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p    b t    d         k    ɡ    
Affricate         tʃ    dʒ            
Fricative     s                h    
Nasal     m     n         ɲ     ŋ    
Approximant     w             j        
Lateral         l                


Table 2. The consonants of Kedayan