Illustrative Words for Consonants

The 18 consonants from Table 1 are illustrated in Table 2, with the orthographic versions shown in italics. DBP (2011, p. 178) lists dila (‘tongue’) as a Bisaya word and gives the Dusun equivalent as jila [ʤila]. However, the consultant insists that dila' is the traditional word in Dusun while many younger speakers prefer jila', so it seems that the contrast between dila' and jila' is not just a difference between Dusun and Bisaya as suggested by DBP (2011).

Table 2. Illustrative words for the consonants of Dusun

/p//palad/palad 'palm (of the hand)' /m//mato/mato'eye'
/b//bolow/bulou'blind' /n//nubuɣ/nubur'rice'
/t//tulaŋ/tulang'bone' /ɲ//ɲaman/nyaman'delicious'
/d//dilaʔ/dila''tongue' /ŋ//ŋkajaw/ngkayau'liver'
/k//kadat/kadat'forehead' /s//siku/siku'elbow'
/ɡ//ɡiɣak/girak'to laugh' /j//jatim/yatim'orphan'
/ʧ//inʧan/incan'cousin' /w//waluʔ/walu''nine'
/ʤ//ʤaɣi/jari'finger' /l//liaw/liau'neck'
/ɣ//ɣabas/rabas'face' /ʔ//buluʔ/bulu''bamboo'

All consonants listed in the inventory can occur in initial position with the exception of /ʔ/ which only occurs in final position.