Data Sets




The ASEAN data was collected by Andy Kirkpatrick in February 2004 and January 2005 at the SEAMEO Regional Language Centre (RELC) in Singpaore. There were six groups. Each group consisted of 3 or 4 speakers, all from different language backgrounds, talking about their experiences and impressions about Singapore. Each session lasted for about 20 minutes. An analysis of some of the misunderstandings that occurred in the interactions can be found in:

Deterding, D., & Kirkpatrick, A. (2006). Emerging South-East Asian Englishes and intelligbility. World Englishes, 25, 391–409.

and an analysis of some of the communicative strategies adopted by these speakers can be found in chapter 6 of:

Kirkpatrick, A. (2011). English as a Lingua Franca in ASEAN: A Multilingual Model, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

We should emphasise that most of the conversations proceeded smoothly, without frequent breakdowns in communication. While we focus on misunderstandings here, we should remember that these were the exception, not the norm, in these interactions between speakers from the various ASEAN countries.